National Stock Exchange History


The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is India’s largest stock exchange. It’s one of the top five exchanges in the world. It was established in 1992 to make India’s capital markets more efficient. Over the years, the NSE has grown significantly and become a prominent exchange.

Let’s take a look at its history and the milestones it has achieved:

Definition of the National Stock Exchange (NSE)

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is in Mumbai, India. It was set up in 1992 when India started reforming and liberalizing. Now, it’s the biggest stock exchange in the country. It’s estimated that 20% of all Indian equity trades happen here.

NSE is a tax-paying company. It began operations in 1994 and was recognized by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) with the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

It has two trading segments: Wholesale Debt Market (WDM) and Equities. WDM involves government securities and corporate bonds. The Equities segment trades in stocks, indices, and derivatives such as futures and options.

NSE is home to over 40 exchanges in India – all registered with it for different transaction types. Investors from all over the world can buy or sell securities quickly online. It is through its automated marketplaces, like Nifty 50, CNX Bank Nifty, etc. It also has an algorithmic trading platform called NEAT (National Exchange Automatic Trading System). It allows investors to access global markets 24/7/365 across all asset classes. It’s cost-effective and handles large trades under real-time liquidity.

Overview of the NSE

The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) was set up in 1992. It’s an automated, screen-based trading system. It gives access to over 1,400 securities, including equity, debt, and derivatives markets.

The NSE’s mission is to give the best possible benefits for investments. It also aligns itself with global and domestic market practices. In addition, the exchange settles transactions and offers investor education and research services.

It has terminals in 800 cities across India. Investors can access real-time data, company info, money data, and stock quotes. The NSE also provides newbies training about stocks, bonds, and derivatives.

SEBI regulates the exchange. It ensures fair play between participants in the stock market. As a result, the stock market functions properly with price discovery, order matching, and risk management. It makes sure fairness among all stakeholders.


The National Stock Exchange – NSE – is India’s most significant. Founded in 1992, it is the 10th largest in the world, with a market cap of over US$3.3 trillion. Its history is a long one. Let us explore, from its inception to the present day, how the NSE has grown:

  • Inception of NSE
  • Growth of NSE
  • Market cap of NSE
  • Current day status of NSE

Pre-NSE Background

Before the 1977 NSE Decree, there was no organized trading of securities. Instead, they were bought and sold without any rules or regulations. As a result, it made it very hard for investors to get accurate information about companies, investments, and market performance.

In 1975, a paper called “The Organisation and Operations of a Nigerian Stock Exchange” was released. It proposed a Centralised Securities Market with a Primary Market for new issues and a Secondary Market for existing securities trading.

In 1992, the NSE Act No. 28 created a legal framework where shares could be legitimately traded. As a result, member firms began operating by auctioning off securities at fixed timetables, with settlement guarantees given after transactions. In addition, the Council of The Stock Exchange set guidelines from its Office at Marina Lagos that all dealings must follow.

Establishment of the NSE

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) was founded on November 10th, 1992, in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). It was set up to replace the over-the-counter exchange that has worked there since 1975. UTI, ICICI, IDBI, IFCI, and SBI were among the founding members of NSE.

In April 1993, it was officially recognized by SEBI and the Indian government. Initially, 82 stocks were listed on NSE from both public and private sector companies. By 2019, this number had risen to 653, with a total market capitalization of $1.28 trillion.

NSE is now recognized as one of India’s leading exchanges. It accounts for 49% of India’s equity derivatives trading volumes and 28% of cash market volumes by value traded since its launch in 2010.

NSE also operates five mutual fund platforms for retail investors, where they can make direct investments into various funds through their websites or mobile application. Additionally, the NSE Corporate Community Program offers education and training resources to those who want to understand stock markets better or make investments without consulting brokers or financial advisors.

Expansion and Growth of the NSE

NSE is an Indian stock market and the second largest in the world by market capitalization. It was Established in 1992, India’s first demutualized electronic exchange since its independence. NSE has become one of Asia’s leading stock exchanges, with its share of equity market turnover (except securities lending scheme) rising from 8% to over 75%.

NSE’s expansion and growth can be divided into five phases:

  1. Setting up technology platform (May 1993–August 1994).
  2. Capitalizing on improved internet/telecommunication linkages (Sept 1994 – Oct 1995).
  3. Introducing Futures & Options trading with BSE (June 2000).
  4. Introducing financial services, telecom, and power markets (Feb 2003 – Aug 2007).
  5. Introducing currency futures, foreign companies, connecting to other international exchanges, and expanding the membership base for retail investors (Dec 2008 – Dec 2013).

NSE has made changes for domestic and global investors by offering new products, technology-driven financial solutions, and services through its electronic trading platform.

Products and Services

NSE, or National Stock Exchange, is situated in Mumbai, India. It is known globally as the 11th largest stock exchange concerning market capitalization. SEBI, or the Securities and Exchange Board of India, recognized NSE as the first Indian stock exchange.

NSE provides a wide range of products and services. These include:

  • Cash
  • Derivatives
  • Bonds
  • Mutual funds
  • Currency derivatives
  • Exchange-traded funds

In this article, we will discuss the different products and services NSE provides.

Equity Trading

Equity trading is essential to the National Stock Exchange (NSE). It involves buying and selling stocks, either through a broker or directly from the exchange. In addition, the NSE offers a centralized platform to enable traders to access essential info before trading.

At the NSE, equity trading occurs on both spot and futures exchanges. Spot exchanges enable buyers and sellers to agree on immediate or short-term delivery. Futures are for future delivery at predetermined prices. Trades occur for equities, currencies, commodities, and derivatives. Market and limit orders allow traders to set their parameters when trading.

At the start of each day’s trading session at the NSE’s Global Trading System, buyers, sellers, brokers, and dealers come together. Orders are made and stored in electronic order books until satisfaction is reached between buyer/seller parties, or expiry is reached.

The NSE helps keep transactions secure and transparent. It also provides investors real-time demand-supply balance sheets and equal treatment processes across asset classes. In addition, it helps them manage their risk profiles related to investments, including global investments affecting Indian markets.

Derivatives Trading

Derivatives are financial contracts between two parties. One provides an asset, and cash flows at a predetermined price later.

Types of derivatives include futuresforwardsoptions, and swaps. Futures and forwards are agreements for the delivery of assets in exchange for payment on a different date. Options are the right, but not the obligation, to buy (call) or sell (put) an asset. Swaps are agreements to exchange sets of payments over time.

Derivatives trading lets investors hedge their portfolios or manage risks. Speculators can take leveraged positions in assets with small amounts of capital, and buyers save money by accessing established markets rather than investing directly. Derivatives trading also gives participants flexibility when covering the market. Investors or traders can build positions made of various derivatives that fit their risk profile and strategy.

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds allow individuals to invest in a portfolio of stocks and other assets managed by experts. These funds are broadly diversified, meaning an investor’s money is spread across many different stores and bonds. As a result, it makes mutual fund investments less risky than investing in just one company.

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) offers equity mutual fund products through the NSE Investment Funds group. It includes long-term capital gains debt mutual funds, tax-saving entry load schemes, corporate debt schemes, large-cap funds, and diversity-oriented funds specialized to particular sectors or regions.

The NSE also provides Exchange Traded Products (ETPs). These can be traded on the NSE platform during regular business hours. Examples of ETPs include Nifty BeES and Gold BeEs, which track the performance of benchmark indices, and foreign ETPs focused on international market indices like S&P 500 Index ETPs tracking US markets. Other popular ETPs include:

  • ETF Gold BeeChips
  • ETF Nifty 50 Bercahips
  • ETF Sensex 30 Bercachips
  • Sector-specific Indices ETF such as IT BeeChips, FMCG BeeChips, etc.

The National Stock Exchange offers a variety of financial products like mutual funds and ETFs so that Indian investors have access to capital markets worldwide.

Regulatory Environment

The National Stock Exchange (NSE) is India’s biggest securities exchange. It works under the rules of the Central Government of India and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The regulatory environment safeguards investors, offers investor education, and guarantees that all trading activities are reasonably organized.

This next section will delve deeper into the National Stock Exchange regulatory setting.

Regulatory Bodies

Regulatory bodies responsible for global securities markets are vital to traders and investors. They ensure fair, transparent, and equitable trading. Plus, they protect investors from fraudulent practices and encourage tech innovation among financial service providers.

In the US, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is the government agency that regulates the national securities exchange. Established in 1934 as part of the Securities Exchange Act of 1933, it supervises all aspects of capital markets – public companies, broker-dealers, and fund managers. Other significant entities are:

  • Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which monitors brokerage firms;
  • The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ), which runs one of the global exchanges; and
  • The Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB) controls municipal securities markets.

International regulatory bodies have also created a more secure and effective cross-border finance system. It includes bilateral agreements between countries like Japan’s Finance Services Agency (FSA) and Singapore’s Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS). And multilateral contracts between three or more countries – like those signed by members of The International Organization Of Securities Commissions (IOSCO).

Regulatory Framework

The NSE of India was established in 1992. It is the largest stock exchange in India and the 10th largest in the world. It started as an open outcry trading platform but changed to a digital computer-based platform in 1995.

It has improved transparency, liquidity, and efficiency in Indian financial markets. Online trading technologies, clearing, and settlement processes have lessened investor transaction costs. Indian firms can now quickly access capital.

The regulator is SEBI. It issues licenses to market intermediaries, registers market participants, and ensures compliance. CBDT and RBI also regulate activities related to the NSE. For example, CBDT looks at taxation, while RBI handles all foreign currency transactions.


The National Stock Exchange (NSE) started small in the early nineties. But it grew to become one of India’s leading stock exchanges. It’s now a major global player in the financial markets.

We explored its history, development, and how it has affected India’s economy. Finally, we discussed the future of the NSE and the forces that will shape it.

Summary of the NSE’s Impact

The National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) has been a major player in the Indian financial market for over two decades. It is one of the largest securities exchanges in the world by volume and has helped develop India’s equity and derivatives markets.

Since 1992, NSE has provided a reliable source of capital and liquidity to investors in the equity and derivatives markets. Its efficient trading mechanisms have allowed swift transactions and competitive prices, minimizing market risks. Moreover, it pioneered the dematerialization of physical shares, reducing fraud and shortening settlement cycles.

Additionally, NSE has provided services such as Index Services, Order Settlement Systems, and Capital Market Solutions. These have led to a more organized system for pricing securities and faster order fulfillment. It has enabled capital mobilization more efficiently than traditional instruments like bank loans, promoting India’s economic growth and job creation.

Overall, NSE harnessed technology to introduce tools that changed investors’ engagement with stocks and related money-making opportunities. It has improved the financial sectors across India significantly.

Future of the NSE

The National Stock Exchange’s future appears bright. Trading volume and market capitalization remain strong. To stay ahead, the NSE is taking steps. Initiatives like the Nifty50® index and the US-India Asia Gateways fund show this.

The NSE is also exploring ways to improve the investor experience. It includes introducing ETFs and other digital services. Plus, the NSE listed Reliance Jio on April 15th, 2021. It boosts liquidity in secondary markets and makes a more attractive environment for new companies.

The National Stock Exchange will remain a significant player in India’s financial ecosystem.

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